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PROTANDIM Ingredients
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The PROTANDIM product consists mainly of a blend of 5 ingredients (amounts per caplet listed in parentheses):
Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) extract (225 mg)
Bacopa (Bacopa monniera) extract (150 mg)
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) root (150 mg)
Green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (75 mg)
Turmeric (Curcuma Ionga) extract (75 mg)
ingredients photo

Milk thistle extract (Silybum marianum) (seed)
Medicinal uses
In herbalism, it is used in cases of liver diseases (cirrhosis, jaundice and hepatitis), gallbladder disease, and is claimed to protect the liver against poisons. Silibinin (syn. silybin, sylimarin I) is a hepatoprotective (antihepatotoxic), antioxidant (radical-scavenging agent), thus stabilizing and protecting the membrane lipids of the hepatocytes (liver cells). Silicristin inhibits the enzymes peroxidase and lipoxygenase. Silidianin is a plant growth regulator. 

Its potent extract is used in medicine under the name silymarin (a flavonolignane complex consisting of silibinin A and B/silybin/silymarin I, isosilibinin A and B, silicristin/silymarin II, silidianin). Silibinin is used against poisoning by amanitas (poison mushroom,) such as the Death Cap (Amanita phalloides) as well as in cerebral edema and acute hepatitis therapy.

Milk thistle has been grown as a medicinal plant in monastery gardens since ancient times. The seed is the part of the plant used medicinally. Silybum marianum extract has antifungal effects, preventing the growth of dermatophyte more than saprophyte fungi. 

One pilot study showed that milk thistle may be as effective as fluoxetine in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Milk Thistle and Toxin-induced liver damage. Research suggests that milk thistle extracts both prevent and repair damage to the liver from toxic chemicals and medications. Workers who had been exposed to vapors from toxic chemicals (toluene and/orxylene) for 5–20 years were given either a standardized milk thistle extract (80% silymarin) or placebo for 30 days. The workers taking the milk thistle extract showed significant improvement in liver function tests (ALT and AST) and platelet counts vs. the placebo group.

The efficacy of silymarin in preventing drug-induced liver damage in patients taking psychotropic drugs long-term has been investigated. This class of drugs is known to cause liver damage from oxidation of lipids. Patients taking silymarin in the study had less hepatic damage from the oxidation of lipids than patients taking the placebo.

In a 2009 study published in the journal Cancer, milk thistle showed promise in reducing the liver damaging effects of chemotherapy in a study of 50 children

The extract is now also being used in beverages as an energy enhancing agent, as exemplified by Rockstar Energy Drink.

Bacopa extract (Bacopa monnieri) (aerial part) 
It has been reported that the plant is used a traditional Ayurvedic treatment for epilepsy and asthma.
Laboratory studies on rats indicate that extracts of the plant improve memory capacity. Recent studies suggest bacopa may improve intellectual activity. The sulfhydryl and polyphenol components of Bacopa monniera extract have also been shown to impact the oxidative stress cascade by scavenging reactive oxygen species, inhibiting lipoxygenase activity and reducing divalent metals. This mechanism of action may explain the effect of Bacopa monniera extract in reducing beta amyloid deposits in mice with Alzheimer's disease. B. monnieri has a demonstrated ability to reverse diazepam-induced amnesia in the Morris water maze test. The mechanism of this action is unknown. In some trials, bacopacide extract did not restore or enhance memory formation, but improved retention. In others including a randomized clinical trial of 98 healthy older people (over 55 years) Bacopa significantly improved memory acquisition and retention.
Its many active compounds include: alkaloids (brahmine and herpestine), saponins (d-mannitol and hersaponin, acid A, and monnierin), flavonoids (luteolin and apigenin). Also in significant amounts: betulic acid, stigmastarol, beta-sitosterol, bacopasaponins (bacosides A, bacosides B, bacopaside II, bacopaside I, bacopaside X, bacopasaponin C, bacopaside N2 and the minor components were bacopasaponin F, bacopasaponin E, bacopaside N1, bacopaside III, bacopaside IV, and bacopaside V). In rats, bacosides A enhance antioxidant defenses, increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity.

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) (root) 
Medical researchers have been studying ashwagandha with great interest and as of this date have carried out 216 studies of its healing benefits, summarized below:
* confers immune system protection
* combats the effects of stress
* improves learning, memory, and reaction time
* reduces anxiety and depression without causing drowsiness
* stabilizes blood sugar
* lowers cholesterol
* reduces brain-cell degeneration
* contains anti-malarial properties
* offers anti-inflammatory benefits

The main active constituents are alkaloids and steroidal lactones. These include tropine and cuscohygrine. The leaves contain the steroidal lactones, withanolides, notably withaferin A, which was the first withanolide to be isolated from W. somnifera.
Traditional medicinal uses
In Ayurveda, the berries and leaves of W. somnifera are locally applied to tumors, tubercular glands, carbuncles, and ulcers. The roots of W. somnifera are used to prepare the herbal remedy ashwagandha, which has been traditionally used to treat various symptoms and conditions.
 Tumour growth
Recent research in mice indicates that withaferin A has anti-metastatic activity.
 Alzheimer's dementia
The effect of a semipurified root extract of W. somnifera containing mostly withanolides was investigated using a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. The transgenic mice showed reversal of behavioral deficits and plaque load after treatment with the extract for 30 days.

Green tea extract (Camellia sinensis) (leaf)

• The leaves have been used in traditional Chinese medicine and other medical systems to treat asthma (functioning as a bronchodilator), angina pectoris, peripheral vascular disease, and coronary artery disease.
• Tea extracts have become a field of interest, due to their notional antibacterial activity. The preservation of processed organic food and the treatment of persistent bacterial infections are particularly being investigated.
• Green tea leaves and extracts have shown to be effective against bacteria responsible for bad breath.
• The tea component epicatechin gallate is being researched because in vitro experiments showed it can reverse methicillin resistance in bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus.

Turmeric extract (Curcuma longa) (rhizome)
Turmeric is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease, cancer, arthritis, and other clinical disorders. As an example of preliminary laboratory research, turmeric ameliorated the severity of pancreatitis-associated lung injury in mice.
According to a 2005 article in the Wall Street Journal, research activity into curcumin and turmeric is increasing. The U.S. National Institutes of Health currently has registered 61 clinical trials completed or underway to study use of dietary curcumin for a variety of clinical disorders (dated June 2011).
Some research shows compounds in turmeric to have anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties; however, curcumin is not one of them.
In May 2012, a team of British researchers launched a clinical trial that will look at whether the curcumin found in curry can improve the drug response in patients with advanced bowel cancer. The aim of their research will try to confirm previous studies which likewise found that curcumin, found in turmeric, can enhance the ability of chemotherapy to kill bowel cancer cells in the lab. Animal tests combining both chemotherapy and curcumin were "100 times better" than either on their own.